Full Bibliography

For space considerations, my publisher and I chose not to include a separate bibliography in America’s Forgotten Suffragists: Virginia and Francis Minor. Here are all the sources I consulted during my research, which are reflected in the endnotes of the book.


“2020 Honorees,” National Women’s History Alliance, accessed February 3, 2020, https://nationalwomenshistoryalliance.org/2020-2021-honorees/.

“About the Revolutionary War Bounty Warrants,” Library of Virginia, last revised February 2021, https://www.lva.virginia.gov/public/guides/opac/bountyabout.htm#:~:text=The%20act%20of%20the%20General,specified%20Revolutionary%20War%20military%20service.

“About Town,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 2, 1882.

            —– St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 22, 1881.

“About Women,” Morning Oregonian, January 25, 1885.

Ackerman, Donald L., and Jonathan H. Mann. That’s the Ticket! A Century of American Political Ballots. New York: Rail Splitter Press, 2012.

“A Curious Writ of Error,” Daily Missouri Democrat, May 6, 1870.

The Advertiser-Courier, December 24, 1875.

“Additional Returns of all Incomes Over $1,000,” Tri-Weekly Missouri Democrat, September 14, 1866.

“Addressing Lunatics: The Women Suffrage Campaign in Nebraska.” St. Louis Post Dispatch, October 9, 1882. ProQuest Historical Newspapers.

“African-American Life in St. Louis, 1804-1865,” Gateway Arch National Park Missouri, last revised April 22, 2021, https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/historyculture/african-american-life-in-saint-louis-1804-through-1865.htm.

“Also.” Conservative, and Holly Springs Banner, May 5, 1840.

“All Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the Several States,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, accessed May 23, 2019. https://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution-conan/article-4/section-2/clause-1/all-privileges-and-immunities-of-citizens-in-the-several-states.

Allgor, Catherine. “Remember…I’m Your Man”: Masculinity, Marriage, and Gender in Hamilton.” In Historians on Hamilton, edited by Renee C. Romano and Claire Bond Potter, 94-118. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2018.

“An Amazonian March Proposed,” Chicago Tribune, May 15, 1888.

“The American Whig-Cliosophic Society,” Princeton University, accessed June 2, 2019, https://whigclio.princeton.edu/about/history/.

American Civil Liberties Union, “League of Women Voters v. Brian D. Newby And The United States Election Assistance Commission,” last updated December 16, 2016, https://www.aclu.org/cases/league-women-voters-v-brian-d-newby-and-united-states-election-assistance-commission.

—–. “Oppose Voter Id Legislation – Fact Sheet,” last updated May 2017, https://www.aclu.org/other/oppose-voter-id-legislation-fact-sheet.

Amendments to the Voting Rights Acts of 1965: Hearings, Ninety-first Congress, First and Second Sessions. United States: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1970.

“An Appeal to the Public,” Daily Missouri Democrat, September 23, 1869.

Anderson, Galusha. The Story of a Border City During the Civil War. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1908.

Anderson, Sarah Travers Lewis. Lewises, Meriwethers and Their Kin, Baltimore, Maryland: Clearfield, 2008.

The Andrew County Republican, March 6, 1874.

Andrus, Brenda Olsen, “Utopian Marriage in Nineteenth-Century America: Public and Private Discourse.” Master’s thesis, Brigham Young University, 1998. https://scholarsarchive.byu.edu/etd/4484.

“Annie E. Harper et al., Appellants, v. Virginia State Board Of Elections et al. Evelyn Butts, Appellant, v. Albertis Harrison, Governor, et al,” Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, accessed September 12, 2019, https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/383/663.

“The Anti-Tax Convention: What Good Has It Done?” Pittsburgh Daily Post, March 22, 1860.

“Anti-Tax League,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, May 1, 1897.

“The Anti-Tax League,” The Boston Globe, December 15, 1879.

“A Preacher of Female Suffrage,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 19, 1888.

Arcadi, Teal and Julia Grummitt, “Commencement Orations,” Princeton & Slavery, accessed July 15, 2019, https://slavery.princeton.edu/stories/commencement.

Arenson, Adam. “Freedom Through Bondage,” The New York Times, September 22, 2011, https://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/09/22/freedom-through-bondage/.

“A Sad and Melancholy Event,” St. Louis Dispatch, May 17, 1866.

“Association to Promote the Well-Being of Women,” The Daily Kansas Tribune, October 16, 1873.

Ault, Alicia, “How Women Got the Vote is a Far More Complex Story Than the History Textbooks Reveal,” Smithsonianmag.com, April 9, 2019.

“Bad Luck of the Dow Ticket,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 4, 1880.

Baer, Judith A, Equality Under the Constitution: Reclaiming the Fourteenth Amendment. Ithaca; London: Cornell University Press, 1983. Accessed September 20, 2020, Jstor. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.7591/j.ctt207g5jg.

“BAMSL History,” The Bar Association of Metropolitan St. Louis, accessed August 20, 2019. https://www.bamsl.org/index.cfm?pg=History.

Baker, David V. Women and Capital Punishment in the United States: An Analytical History, United States: McFarland, 2015.

Ballard, Victoria LaFon.“Edgehill.” Master’s thesis, University of Virginia, Spring 1994, University of Virginia Special Collections.

“Banneker School,” St. Louis County Place Names 1928-1945, The State Historical Society of Missouri, accessed February 8, 2020, https://shsmo.org/manuscripts/ramsay/ramsay_saint_louis.html.

Barnett, Alan. “Remembering the Edmunds-Tucker Act.” Utah State Archives and Records Service. News from the Archives, accessed March 14, 2019. https://archivesnews.utah.gov/2019/03/14/remembering-the-edmunds-tucker-act/#:~:text=The%20Edmunds%2DTucker%20Act%20is,depriving%20Utah%20women%20of%20the

Barnes, Harper. “The Madame Years” St. Louis Magazine. June 23, 2009, https://www.stlmag.com/The-Madame-Years/.

Barron, Carole. “Orange Co. VA, Chancery – Harris,” In Chancery – Orange County Order Bk, 83, 84, 25, Aug 1803 http://files.usgwarchives.net/va/orange/court/h620t1ch.txt.

Basch, Norma. “Reconstructing Female Citizenship: Minor v. Happersett,” In The Constitution, law, and American Life: Critical Aspects of the Nineteenth-century Experience, edited by Donald G. Nieman, 52-66.. Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia Press, 1992.

Bates, Edward. The Diary Of Edward Bates, 1859-1866. United States: Da Capo Press, 1971.

Bates, et al of Virginia and Missouri. Onward Bates His Book. Printed for Private Distribution. United States: Press of P. F. Pettibone, 1914.

Beaumont, Elizabeth. The Civic Constitution. Oxford University Press, 2014.

“Belva A. Lockwood and ‘Mormon’ Mothers.” Woman’s Exponent, March 1, 1886, https://newspapers.lib.utah.edu/ark:/87278/s62r85tk.

“Bemis vs. Wainwright,” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, April 21, 1880.

“Benj. L. Hickman,” Daily Missouri Republican, May 9, 1869.

Bensel, Richard Franklin. “The American Ballot Box in the Mid Nineteenth Century.” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. http://assets.cambridge.org/97805218/31017/sample/9780521831017ws.pdf

Bernays, Thekla. Diplomatic Woman: An Essay. Read Before the Century Club of St. Louis, Mo. United States: Nixon-Jones Printing Company, 1883.

“Beyond the Ballot: St. Louis and Suffrage,” Missouri History Museum, accessed August 1, 2020, https://mohistory.org/exhibits/beyond-the-ballot.

Bingham, G.C., Report of the Adjutant General of Missouri: Upon the Certificates Issued by the Missouri War Claims Commission of 1874, Jefferson City, MO: The Hugh Stephens Printing Company, 1907. Missouri Historical Society.

“Biographical Data Sheets for State Honor Roll, 1931,” Box 1, Folder 15. League Of Women Voters Of Missouri, Papers, 1911-1976, State Historical Society of Missouri, Mercantile Library, St. Louis, Missouri.

Blanck, Peter David and Michael Millender. “Before Disability Civil Rights: Civil War Pensions and the Politics of Disability in America.” Alabama Law Review, Volume 42. No. 1, Fall 2000, 1-50. https://www.law.ua.edu/pubs/lrarticles/Volume%2052/Issue%201/Blanck.pdf.

Black, Henry Campbell. Handbook on the Construction and Interpretation of the Laws. United States: West Publishing Company, 1911.

Blank, Chris. “Doctor Honored Through Hall of Famous Missourians Induction.” The Missourian, April 16, 2014. https://www.columbiamissourian.com/news/state_news/doctor-honored-through-hall-of-famous-missourians-induction/article_b456cabc-d6d5-5d03-a3f1-bc891d616633.html

Bloomberg, Kathryn Elizabeth, “Charitable Women: Volunteerism in the St. Louis Ladies Union Aid Society.” Master’s Thesis University of Missouri – Rolla, 2009. http://irl.umsl.edu/thesis/167.

“Board of Public Schools Official Report: St. Louis, June 9, 1885,” Official Proceedings St. Louis Public Schools, Volume 5, St. Louis: Nixon-Jones Printing Co, 1886.

“Bounty Land Warrants,” Weekly Reveille, July 5, 1847.

“Bounty-Land Warrants for Military Service, 1775–1855.”  National Archives and Records Administration. https://www.archives.gov/files/research/military/bounty-land-1775-1855.pdf.

“Bowman, Dr. A. G.,” St. Louis Globe Democrat. December 1, 1880, last modified April 9, 2020, https://stlgs.org/research-2/publications/newspapers/news-items-from-the-st-louis-globe-democrat-1880.

Bradwell v. The State, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, accessed May 24, 2019, https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/83/130.

Breen, T. H. Tobacco Culture: The Mentality of the Great Tidewater Planters on the Eve of Revolution. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton U Press, 1985.

Briffault, Richard. “The Contested Right to Vote,” Michigan Law Review, Vol 100, Issue, 2002. 1506-1531. https://repository.law.umich.edu/mlr/vol100/iss6/16.

Bright, David L. and National Archivists, “Biography of Minor Meriwether,” Accessed January 5, 2019, https://www.csa-railroads.com/Essays/Biography_of_Minor_Meriwether.htm.

Bristed, Charles Astor. The Upper Ten Thousand: Sketches of American Society. United States: Stringer & Townsend, 1852.

Bristow, David L., ed. Votes for Women: The 19th Amendment in Nebraska. Special Edition of Nebraska History Magazine. Lincoln, Nebraska: History Nebraska, 2019.

Brockett, Linus Pierpont and Mary C, Vaughan. Woman’s Work in the Civil War: A Record of Heroism, Patriotism and Patience. Philadelphia, Pa.: Zeigler, McCurdy & Co., 1868.

Brody, Miriam. Victoria Woodhull: Free Spirit for Women’s Rights. United Kingdom: OUP USA, 2004.

Brown, Henry Billings, “Opinion of the Court,” Plessy v. Ferguson, Legal Information Institute, Cornell Law School, accessed May 1, 2019, https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/163/537

Brown, Jennifer K, “The Nineteenth Amendment and Women’s Equality,” Yale Law Journal 102, no. 8, (1993): 2175-2204.

Bruce, Philip Alexander, Lyon Gardiner Tyler, and Richard Lee Morton. History of Virginia, Volume 5. American Historical Society, 1924.

“The B.T. List” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 10, 1884.

Buffalo Morning Express and Illustrated Buffalo Express, November 13, 1872.

Burdick, Charles K. “Estates by the Marital Right and by the Curtesy in Missouri,” 2 Bulletin Law Series, (1914): 5-27. https://scholarship.law.missouri.edu/ls/vol2/iss1/3.

Burgess, John William. Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law. Government. United States: Ginn, 1890.

Burns, Jasper. Gale Hill: The Story of an Old Virginia House. Waynesboro, Virginia: Pietas Publications, 2017. Kindle.

Buttre, John Chester. “Virginia Louisa Minor, head-and-shoulders portrait, facing right.” Library of Congress. https://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/92500061/.

“Cable Act of 1922,” Immigration History,. The University of Texas at Austin, accessed April 3 2020,  https://immigrationhistory.org/item/cable-act.

“Campaign Work.” The Nebraska State Journal, October 7, 1882.

Carlson, Avis. The First Forty Years: 1919-1959. The League of Women Voters of St. Louis, 1959.

“Case No. 764: In the District Court of the United States.” Daily Missouri Democrat, October 8, 1869.

Cashin, Joan A, “The Structure of Antebellum Planter Families: ‘The Ties that Bound us was Strong.’” The Journal of Southern History, 56, no. 1 (February 1990): 55-70. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2210664.

“Catalogue of the Officers and Students of the University of Virginia Session 1842-1843.” Richmond, Virginia: Shepherd and Colin, 1843. University of Virginia Law Library.

Censer, Jane Turner. North Carolina Planters and Their Children, 1800—1860. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1984.

Census Bureau. “Voting Districts,” Census.gov, accessed September 13, 2019. https://www2.census.gov/geo/pdfs/reference/GARM/Ch14GARM.pdf.

Chan, Naomi. Faithless Wives and Lazy Husbands: Gender Norms in Nineteenth Century Divorce Law, U. Ill. L. Rev. 651 (2002), George Washington University Law School. http://ssrn.com/abstract=266477.

“Charlottesville: A Brief Urban History,” Charlottesville Urban Design and Affordable Housing, last modified July 28, 2005. http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/schwartz/cville/cville.history.html.

Charter, Constitution, By-laws, Rules, Officers, Committees, and Members of the Bar Association of St. Louis. United States: Hughes & Company, 1902.

Chicago Tribune, May 9, 1892.

The Cincinnati Daily Star, September 1, 1879.

“City News” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 4, 1882.

“The Civil War on Civilians.” The History Engine, Rise And Fall of the Slave South, University of Virginia, accessed June 18, 2019, https://historyengine.richmond.edu/episodes/view/2561.

Clamorgan, Cyprian. The Colored Aristocracy of St. Louis. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press, 1999.

Clerk of the Court. “Guide for Counsel in Cases to be Argued Before the United States Supreme Court.” October Term 2015. Supreme Court of the United States, 2015, accessed April 12, 2019, https://www.supremecourt.gov/casehand/guideforcounsel.pdf.

Clinton, Catherine. The Plantation Mistress. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982.

Clopton, Gene Carlton. The Ancestors and Descendants of William Clopton of York County, Virginia. Atlanta, Phoenix Printing, Inc. 1984.

Coalier, Paula “Beyond Sympathy: The St. Louis Ladies’ Union Aid Society and the Civil War,” Gateway Heritage 11, no. 1 (summer 1990): 38-51.

Colai, William E., Lawrence O. Christensen, and Brad D. Lookingbill. Missouri: The Heart of the Nation. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons: 2020.

Colby, Clara Berwick. “Report of Federal Suffrage Committee.” Woman’s Tribune, February 11, 1893.

“College of New Jersey Commencement,” Newark Daily Advertiser, September 30, 1841.

Collins, Cameron, “The Suffragist,” Distilled History, April 9, 2014, Accessed November 24, 2018, https://www.distilledhistory.com/suffragette/.

Collins, Miss Marie Garesche Marie Garesche Collins to CVR, November 1949. Missouri Historical Society.

Compton, Richard J, and Camille N Dry, Pictorial St. Louis, the great metropolis of the Mississippi valley; a topographical survey drawn in perspective A.D. (St. Louis: Compton & co, 1876), Plate 103. https://www.loc.gov/item/rc01001392/.

Conard, Howard Louis. Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri: A Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference. United States: Southern History Company, Haldeman, Conard & Company, proprietors, 1901.

—– “Tax Rate, State.” Encyclopedia of the History of Missouri: A Compendium of History and Biography for Ready Reference. United States: Southern History Company, Haldeman, Conard & Company, proprietors, 1901.

“Convention of Publishers and Editors.” Daily Missouri Democrat, May 20, 1869.

Cooney, Robert P.J. Winning the Vote: The Triumph of the American Woman Suffrage Movement, American Graphic Press, Santa Cruz, California, 2005.

“Coopers Wanted.” Daily Missouri Republican, October 25, 1853.

Corbett, Katharine T. In Her Place: A Guide to St. Louis Women’s History. Missouri Historical Society Press, St. Louis, 1999.

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Cott, Nancy F. “Marriage and Women’s Citizenship in the United States 1830-1934.” The American Historical Review 103, no. 5 (Dec. 1998): 1440-1474, Jstor.


—– Public Vows. United Kingdom: Harvard University Press, 2009.

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“The Courts.” Daily Missouri Democrat, December 25, 1866, 4.

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Cox, James. Old and New St. Louis: A Concise History of the Metropolis of the West and Southwest, with a Review of Its Present Greatness and Immediate Prospects. United States: Central Biographical Publishing Company, 1894.

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            —- https://www.officialdata.org/us/inflation/1849?amount=5

Cromwell, Sharon. Dred Scott V. Sandford: A Slave’s Case for Freedom and Citizenship. Mankato, MN: Compass Point Books, 2009.

“Current Topics.” The Highland Weekly News, January 3, 1875.

Daily Missouri Republican, November 16, 1866, 3.

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“Death of Francis N. Minor.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 22, 1892.

Del Toro, Emilio, “Opinion of the Court,” Morales et al., Petitioners, v. Board of Registration, Respondent. Supreme Court of Puerto Rico April 25, 1924, Nos. 219 and 220

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“Democratic Meeting,” Guard, June 12, 1845.

Denny, James and John Bradbury. The Civil War’s First Blood: Missouri 1854-1861. Boonville, Missouri: MissouriLife, 2007.

“Departures.” St. Louis Post-Dispatch, July 16, 1893.

            —–. April 9, 1893.

DePriest, John. American Crusades: The Rise and Fulfillment of the Protestant Establishment. Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2019.

“Determined to Vote.” St. Louis Times, October 16, 1872, np. Missouri State Archives.

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“Died.” Mortuary Notice. Daily Missouri Republican, June 18, 1858.

“Died.” St. Louis Post Dispatch, May 16, 1865.

“Died.” The Virginia Herald, October 20, 1824.

Director of Education. “The Significance of the Virginia Minor Trial,” Virginia Minor Trial Packet, Jefferson National Expansion Memorial, 2006, accessed November 26, 2018. https://www.nps.gov/jeff/learn/education/upload/Minor3.pdf

Dismore, David M. “Live-Blogging Women’s History: March 29, 1875,” Ms. Magazine Blog, March 29, 2011, accessed November 25, 2018. http://msmagazine.com/blog/2011/03/29/live-blogging-womens-history-march-29-1875/.

“Dissolution of Law Partnership.” Daily Missouri Republican, November 14, 1859, 4.

Dobkins, Linda Harris. “Politics, Economic Provisioning, and Suffrage in St. Louis: What Women Said, What Men Heard.” The American Journal of Economics and Sociology 71, no. 1, (January, 2012): 54-76 http://www.jstor.com/stable/23245178.

Donlon, Regina. German and Irish Immigrants in the Midwestern United States, 1850-1900. Palgrave Macmillen, 2018.

Dorn, T. Felder. Challenges on the Emmaus Road: Episcopal Bishops Confront Slavery, Civil War, and Emancipation. University of South Carolina Press, 2013.

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Dubois, Ellen Carol. Suffrage: Women’s Long Battle for the Vote. Simon & Schuster, New York: 2020.

—– “Taking the Law into Our Own Hands: Bradwell, Minor, and Suffrage Militance in the 1870s.” in Visible Women: New Essays on American Activism, ed. Nancy A. Hewitt and Suzanne Lebsock, (University of Illinois Press; October 1, 1993), 19-40.

—- Woman Suffrage and Women’s Rights. New York University Press, New York, 1998.

Duplantier, Wes. “Group Drops Toilet Paper in Capitol To Protest Limbaugh Bust.” The Missourian, March 20, 2012. https://www.columbiamissourian.com/news/group-drops-toilet-paper-in-capitol-to-protest-limbaugh-bust/article_1aed6d7f-12f1-5cce-ae39-48b09610ce30.html

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—–. “Why We Need the Equal Rights Amendment,” accessed December 9, 2019,  https://www.equalrightsamendment.org/why.

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—–. “News Roundup About Virginia Minor.” August 11, 2020.  https://nicoleevelina.com/2020/08/11/news-roundup-about-virginia-minor/.

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            —–. The Second Founding: How the Civil War and Reconstruction Remade the Constitution. United States: W. W. Norton, 2019.

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Fordyce, Christine Orrick. “Early Beginnings,” in “History of the Woman Suffrage Movement in Missouri,” edited by Mary Semple Scott, The Missouri Historical Review, XIV, Nos. 3-4. (April-July 1920), 288-299.

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“Francis Minor.” St. Louis Globe-Democrat, January 9, 1854.

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“Francis Minor: Sketch of a Lawyer and Scholar St. Louis Has Lost.” St. Louis Republic. February 21, 1892, 5.

Francis Minor Necrology File, Missouri Historical Society Library, St. Louis, Missouri.

Frank, Marie. “It Took an Academical Village: Jefferson’s Hotels at the

University of Virginia.” The Magazine of Ablemarle County History 59, (2001): 30–68.

Franklin, John Hope and Loren Schweninger. Runaway Slaves: Rebels on the Plantation. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Frazier, Harriet C. Death Sentences in Missouri, 1803-2005: A History and Comprehensive Registry of Legal Executions, Pardons, and Commutations. United States: McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers, 2006.

—– Runaway and Freed Missouri Slaves and Those who Helped Them, 1763-1865. United Kingdom: McFarland & Company, 2004.

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